I know a bit about probability. But could you dumb this down a notch for me? What can it actually be used for? Machine learning in particular maybe, but what else?

Scientists make use of it when designing experiments and you can make use of it to simulate said experiments. You can also use probability theory to create models of stochastic (somewhat random) phenomena like English text, and then use the "parameters" (numbers) of that model to generate something statistically similar to English. This is called a Markov Model. I suggest giving some of the stuff on Peter Norvig's site a read: http://norvig.com

]]>Also Allen Downey has a great book called Think Stats: http://www.greenteapress.com/thinkstats/

and another one in the works called Think Bayes: http://www.greenteapress.com/thinkbayes/

The first one will also teach you about statistical hypothesis testing in the frequentist tradition (ala R.A. Fisher)

]]>Anyway, I thought I'd share it since it might be interesting for some of you:

https://github.com/CamDavidsonPilon/Pro … or-Hackers