Being relatively new to linux, and very new to Arch - I have been doing everything as "root". This has made it easier for me to set up everything, and learn how things work. I think I need to make a normal user account now, and switch over to using that (instead of using root). I installed Alsa, vmware, firefox, xine, xmms, RTCW, Enemy Territory, and lots of other packages - as "root".
To run software as non-root, I think I might need to set up some "groups", like a "sound" group or maybe a "game" group, and give those groups access to the sound card.
Should I re-install Arch?
Should I re-install packages as my new user?
Should I create groups for various tasks?
Can I give my "normal" account superuser access? (like on Windows).
I'm not sure what tasks are supposed to be done as root, and which as a user. I expect everything to stop working once I start using my new account. :-(
For example, I have two big (160GB) data drives that I want to freely read and write to, but I will have to set up some kind of permissions for that (/mnt/data1 and /mnt/data2).
Well, I thought I'd ask to see if anyone had any good tips. I'll be trying to switch over tonight.
Here check out the documenation on creating a new user.
http://www.archlinux.org/docs/en/guide/ … tml#SEC3.3
Next, you will want to get familar with the chown, chgrp, chmod commands as they will allow you to change the permissions on the data you have already created.
Also take a look at sudo. It allows you to run programs at root like access with your non-root accounts.
You should be able to run your programs as you do now. Just copy some of the configuration files from /root to your new user's home under /home/username
sorry this is so outlined and brief. But i have to attend a call now.
First, follow normnmiles suggestions, but ome of these are probably mysterious to you, I would suspect.
1. Add a non-root user. Use the 'useradd' command. Type 'useradd --help' to get a list of the relevant options:
[wcarus@blackadder]$ sudo useradd --help
useradd: invalid option -- -
Usage: useradd [-u uid [-o]] [-g group] [-G group,...]
[-d home] [-s shell] [-c comment] [-m [-k template]]
[-f inactive] [-e expire]
useradd -D [-g group] [-b base] [-s shell]
[-f inactive] [-e expire]
You'll probably do something like the following, as root:
useradd -g users -d /home/your-name -s /bin/bash -m your-name
2. Make appropriate changes to /etc/group. I find that editing the /etc/group file is the easiest approach. This must be done as root (or using 'sudo' (more below)).
You should probably set up the following:
and possibly the following, if you use slocate and have a distinct group for your cdrom burners:
IMPORTANT: The numbers (except for slocate) will have to be set to match your group file. Don't just copy my numbers blindly; make sure they are unique. Some users take numbers above 100 for user-added groups (that aren't already added automatically by pacman installation).
3. Add sudo, as root:
pacman -S sudo
Note: visudo is run using vim, so you'll need to know a few vi commands.
Insert the following line, if you want a really easy, but somewhat dangerous sudo setup:
your-name ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL
You'll then be able to run anything as your non-root user by prefixing it with sudo (and it won't ask for a password). This is not particularly safe, but it's a bit better than running as root.
If you want to use a password (which is asked only the first time or only after a long delay between uses of sudo):
your-name ALL=(ALL) ALL
This really should is the preferred general setup.
For example, you can now edit files that can normally only be accessed as root:
sudo nano /etc/rc.conf
sudo nano /etc/lilo.conf
4. Log off root and log into your account. Edit .xinitrc to load the appropriate graphical environment.
To set up KDE, .xinitrc should look like:
# Executed by startx (run your window manager from here)
# exec wmaker
# exec icewm
# exec blackbox
# exec fluxbox
Comment the graphical environments as appropriate to your setup.
You should then be all set.
OK, I'll try to keep this short (and therefore simple) :
- you can't break anything if you are a user ;-) ... so : <b>Just Try ! :-) </b>
- don't worry about groups just yet. Just see what works and what does not.
- installing pacakges as root is usually the way you do it anyways !
Remember, Unix is a multi-user system since its dawn. It is designed so that one user (root) manages everything, and all the users take advantage of it.
Ok, I follows Win's instructions, and set up an account called "b". I added "b" to the wheel group, and then used visudo to let the wheel group run root commands with a password (I dont mind typing in the pw).
So then I used scp to copy a tar'd vmware virtual machine from my /root directory to my /home/b directory, untarred it, and ran vmware.
When vmware began to start up the virutal machine, I got two permission errors. I lacked permissions on "/dev/mixer" and "/dev/dsp".
I know there are several ways to solve this problem, but I wasnt sure which was best. I thinkI can:
make a "sound" or "audio" group, add "b" to it, then give that groups some permissions to those devices (somehow). Or I could maybe mayke everyone be able to use those devices. Or I could say "b" was the owner of those devices.
I currently do not have either a "audio" or "sound" group. I am running fluxbox with ALSA sound. Though I switch to xfce4 or gnome later.