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#1 2011-11-23 20:46:04

senorsmile
Member
Registered: 2010-12-12
Posts: 67

netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

I have just started using netcfg instead of the network daemon in order to set up a bridge to connect vm's under KVM to my existing network.  I follow the instructions at:

      https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Ne … _.28VMs.29

to no avail.  I am able to assign a static I.P. address using this br0 in the vm and get connectivity between the vm and the host only.  I found another thread that suggested having to add firewall rules.

      https://bbs.archlinux.org/viewtopic.php?pid=762207

I know this is done automatically on other distro's (as part of the bridge setup).  Adding this firewall masquerade rule gets me access to the internet from the vm, but no local access to any other machines on my local network (e.g. can't access anything else on the 192.168.0.0/24 network).  I admit that my knowledge of iptables is next to none.  Is it necessary to have to add more rules manually?  If not, what is missing from the wiki to set up a simple bridge using netcfg in Arch?

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#2 2011-11-23 22:16:12

teekay
Member
Registered: 2011-10-26
Posts: 269

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

Those instructions are somewhat incomplete or even wrong.
You'll need a tuntap device. So fist do a

modprobe tun
modprobe bridge

and add them to MODULES array in rc.conf.
Then:

cd /etc/network.d
cp examples/tuntap .
cp examples/bridge .

Now edit tuntap as follows (change USER to the user who is going to run the VMs)

INTERFACE='tap0'
CONNECTION='tuntap'
MODE='tap'
USER='tom'
GROUP='nobody'

And bridge (Adopt your old eth0 config in here)

INTERFACE="br0"
CONNECTION="bridge"
DESCRIPTION="Example Bridge connection"
BRIDGE_INTERFACES="eth0 tap0"
IP="static"
ADDR="192.168.1.4"
GATEWAY="192.168.1.1"
DNS=('212.18.0.5' '212.18.3.5')

Finally, add them to rc.conf NETWORKS array

NETWORKS=(tuntap bridge)

Last edited by teekay (2011-11-23 22:25:12)

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#3 2011-11-23 22:40:32

senorsmile
Member
Registered: 2010-12-12
Posts: 67

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

teekay wrote:

Those instructions are somewhat incomplete or even wrong.
You'll need a tuntap device. So fist do a

modprobe tun
modprobe bridge

and add them to MODULES array in rc.conf.
Then:

cd /etc/network.d
cp examples/tuntap .
cp examples/bridge .

Now edit tuntap as follows (change USER to the user who is going to run the VMs)

INTERFACE='tap0'
CONNECTION='tuntap'
MODE='tap'
USER='tom'
GROUP='nobody'

And bridge (Adopt your old eth0 config in here)

INTERFACE="br0"
CONNECTION="bridge"
DESCRIPTION="Example Bridge connection"
BRIDGE_INTERFACES="eth0 tap0"
IP="static"
ADDR="192.168.1.4"
GATEWAY="192.168.1.1"
DNS=('212.18.0.5' '212.18.3.5')

Finally, add them to rc.conf NETWORKS array

NETWORKS=(tuntap bridge)

Thanks for the reply.  I have adjusted my settings accordingly and add the tuntap profile.  I rebooted and now have a tun0 device when I do an

ifconfig -a

.  It shows:

tun0: flags=4240<POINTOPOINT,NOARP,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500  metric 1
        unspec 00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00  txqueuelen 500  (UNSPEC)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

My vm still has access to the host only though.  DHCP didn't work in the guest, so I set it up with a static I.P. 

I should add that I'm using virt-manager.  I am attaching the virtual network interface to br0.  I haven't figured out how to run virt-manager as my user, so it always makes me authenticate as root when I run it.

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#4 2011-11-25 16:04:43

teekay
Member
Registered: 2011-10-26
Posts: 269

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

I re-checked my kvm setup, and realized that tap0 isn't used at all (somehow it's not attached to the bridge automatically, believing "brctl show"). So I removed tuntap and only used a bridge as described in the wiki. It works with virt-manager here using br0. The VMs can access both, the host and the internet. My host dosn't run iptables.

So the info in my first post was invalid, sorry for that.

Do you have iptables active on your host? What driver do you use for network (virtio or others)?

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#5 2011-11-26 20:45:14

senorsmile
Member
Registered: 2010-12-12
Posts: 67

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

teekay wrote:

I re-checked my kvm setup, and realized that tap0 isn't used at all (somehow it's not attached to the bridge automatically, believing "brctl show"). So I removed tuntap and only used a bridge as described in the wiki. It works with virt-manager here using br0. The VMs can access both, the host and the internet. My host dosn't run iptables.

So the info in my first post was invalid, sorry for that.

Do you have iptables active on your host? What driver do you use for network (virtio or others)?

I am not actively using iptables.  I usually use "hypervisor default" but have tried virtio to no avail. 

Here is my /etc/rc.conf (stripped down with most commented lines removed):

#
# /etc/rc.conf - Main Configuration for Arch Linux
#

LOCALE="en_US.UTF-8"
DAEMON_LOCALE="no"
HARDWARECLOCK="UTC"
TIMEZONE="America/Los_Angeles"
KEYMAP="us"
CONSOLEFONT=
CONSOLEMAP=
USECOLOR="yes"
VERBOSE="3"

MOD_AUTOLOAD="yes"
MODULES=(kvm kvm-amd)

UDEV_TIMEOUT=30

USEDMRAID="no"

USEBTRFS="no"

USELVM="yes"

HOSTNAME="phenomarch"

NETWORK_PERSIST="no"

NETWORKS=(bridge)


DAEMONS=(hwclock syslog-ng !network @net-profiles netfs crond dbus !wicd @libvirtd @sshd @samba @sensors)
#DAEMONS=(syslog-ng @network netfs crond)
#DAEMONS=()

And here is my /etc/network.d/bridge:

CONNECTION="bridge"
DESCRIPTION="eth0 Bridge"
INTERFACE="br0"
PRE_UP="ifconfig eth0 0.0.0.0 promisc"
BRIDGE_INTERFACES="eth0"
#IP="dhcp"

IP='static'
ADDR='192.168.0.6'
#ROUTES=('192.168.0.0/24 via 192.168.1.2')
GATEWAY='192.168.0.1'
DNS=('192.168.0.1')

Anything in those preventing the bridge from working properly?

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#6 2011-12-20 04:45:00

senorsmile
Member
Registered: 2010-12-12
Posts: 67

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

*Bump*

Anyone see anything in my setup files that should prevent the bridge from running properly?  This is one of the main things preventing me from installing Arch on all of my machines. 

Once I find the answer to the issue, if I can identify what caused it, I shall update the wiki with what I found.

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#7 2011-12-25 13:18:11

Teshadael
Member
Registered: 2008-04-06
Posts: 29

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

For starters, try adding you tun0 interface to "BRIDGE_INTERFACES".

/etc/network.d/bridge:

BRIDGE_INTERFACES="eth0 tap0"

See if that helps any.

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#8 2011-12-26 04:20:51

senorsmile
Member
Registered: 2010-12-12
Posts: 67

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

Teshadael wrote:

For starters, try adding you tun0 interface to "BRIDGE_INTERFACES".

/etc/network.d/bridge:

BRIDGE_INTERFACES="eth0 tap0"

See if that helps any.

As teekay mentioned, the tuntap device shouldn't be used, at least according to the wiki and how teekay set it up.  My files are set up according to the wiki, as best as I can tell.  I did try the tuntap device as well, yet to no avail.

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#9 2011-12-27 10:01:09

hexadecagram
Member
Registered: 2011-05-20
Posts: 22

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

I'm also using virt-manager with a default iptables configuration and also am failing to get bridging working over WiFi.

If I use the following configuration (I'm purposefully avoiding tun/tap in the interest of having the bridging device created and destroyed dynamically):

Source device: Host device wlan0 : macvtap
Device model: virtio
Source mode: VEPA. bridge, or private (passthrough fails to set the MAC, as one would expect)

Then run tcpdump on wlan0 (sudo tcpdump -e -i wlan0 -nptttt port bootps), I see DHCP packets being broadcast, but no replies being sent.  Furthermore, if I sniff my DHCP server in a similar manner, I see that they are not arriving.

However, I am able to successfully get bridging functionality over a wired connection.

My hypothesis is that my access point or one of the 2 switches between my laptop and the DHCP server are seeing >1 MAC per port and are filtering by default.  Unfortunately, all devices in the path have both poor software and documentation and I'm having a difficult time determining this for certain.

Could others please confirm this by performing similar tcpdumps and reporting their findings?

Last edited by hexadecagram (2011-12-27 10:13:41)

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#10 2011-12-27 16:50:09

senorsmile
Member
Registered: 2010-12-12
Posts: 67

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

hexadecagram wrote:

I'm also using virt-manager with a default iptables configuration and also am failing to get bridging working over WiFi.

If I use the following configuration (I'm purposefully avoiding tun/tap in the interest of having the bridging device created and destroyed dynamically):

Source device: Host device wlan0 : macvtap
Device model: virtio
Source mode: VEPA. bridge, or private (passthrough fails to set the MAC, as one would expect)

Then run tcpdump on wlan0 (sudo tcpdump -e -i wlan0 -nptttt port bootps), I see DHCP packets being broadcast, but no replies being sent.  Furthermore, if I sniff my DHCP server in a similar manner, I see that they are not arriving.

However, I am able to successfully get bridging functionality over a wired connection.

My hypothesis is that my access point or one of the 2 switches between my laptop and the DHCP server are seeing >1 MAC per port and are filtering by default.  Unfortunately, all devices in the path have both poor software and documentation and I'm having a difficult time determining this for certain.

Could others please confirm this by performing similar tcpdumps and reporting their findings?

You are clearly much further along than I.  How did you get bridging to work with your wired connection?  Did you do it according to the previously posted directions?:

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Ne … _.28VMs.29

When I run a tcpdump on boot up of a vm, I see


2011-12-27 08:42:30.799529 52:54:00:05:4b:86 > ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, ethertype IPv4 (0x0800), length 342: 0.0.0.0.68 > 255.255.255.255.67: BOOTP/DHCP, Request from 52:54:00:05:4b:86, length 300

over and over.  In my VM(ubuntu 10.04 desktop edition), I can set up its lan connection for static and can communicate with the static IP of the host machine only.  I can't get ping response from the router or anything on the internet. 

Please post your config files at least showing how you were able to get a wired bridge working in arch.

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#11 2011-12-28 09:33:29

hexadecagram
Member
Registered: 2011-05-20
Posts: 22

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

senorsmile wrote:

You are clearly much further along than I.  How did you get bridging to work with your wired connection?  Did you do it according to the previously posted directions?:

https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Ne … _.28VMs.29

No I did not.  I simply used the following settings in virt-manager:

Source device: Host device eth0 : macvtap (note the difference)
Device model: virtio
Source mode: VEPA. bridge, or private (all three work, but passthrough fails to set the MAC, as one would expect; read this to understand the difference)

When my laptop is wired, traffic between it and my DHCP server goes through 3 switches, 1 of which is a core switch that also carries the WiFi traffic between the laptop and DHCP server, 1 of which is the same brand and model as the second in the WiFi path, and 1 of which is the same brand as the other two.  As such, I'm quite certain that the problem lies between the access point and the laptop.

My hypothesis is that this new MAC that my wireless station assigns itself is not authenticating and therefore any traffic from it is being dropped like it should.  However, as I mentioned previously I cannot verify this for certain.  Furthermore, I cannot create an open 802.11 network nor enable 802.1X on my wired connection (thus simulating WPA2) at this time.  If someone else could, that would be helpful in determining what exactly needs to be done.

senorsmile wrote:

When I run a tcpdump on boot up of a vm, I see


2011-12-27 08:42:30.799529 52:54:00:05:4b:86 > ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff, ethertype IPv4 (0x0800), length 342: 0.0.0.0.68 > 255.255.255.255.67: BOOTP/DHCP, Request from 52:54:00:05:4b:86, length 300

over and over.  In my VM(ubuntu 10.04 desktop edition), I can set up its lan connection for static and can communicate with the static IP of the host machine only.  I can't get ping response from the router or anything on the internet.

So, like my laptop, yours is broadcasting DHCP requests out wlan0 (assuming that's what you sniffed) but not receiving any responses.

senorsmile wrote:

Please post your config files at least showing how you were able to get a wired bridge working in arch.

Done.  It seems to me that the key to getting this to work does in fact lie in using scripts to manually create a bridge, but it will require some wpa_supplicant work in order to authenticate.  I'll play with it and will post the results.

Last edited by hexadecagram (2011-12-28 09:37:05)

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#12 2011-12-31 05:17:19

hexadecagram
Member
Registered: 2011-05-20
Posts: 22

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

I've been trying to make virt-manager do all the work of managing the bridge to see if it's possible.  Seems that in order to do so, libvirt needs the ability to pass options to dnsmasq (and possibly have hooks to run scripts), but that isn't something I can work on right now.

I need this VM up and running this weekend, so I've at least managed to get NAT working.  But I was disappointed to find out that since I can't configure what options dnsmasq passes in DHCPACKs, I can't browse my SMB domain.

With networks that use port-based network access control (particularly encrypted wireless networks), it seems to me that the path of least resistance will be found using a routed interface rather than a bridge.  I've added a static network route on my router and configured libvirt using virt-manager (so that /var/lib/libvirt/network/<my-routed-network-name>.xml resembles what is on the wiki), and it almost does the job right out of the box.

I can ping the virtual bridge (virbr1, 192.168.100.1) from the router, the host, and inside the VM.  I can also ping the VM (192.168.100.253) from the host.

When trying to ping the VM from the router (192.168.0.1), I see ARP who-has requests all the way up to my laptop's interface (wlan0, 192.168.0.25), but they aren't getting replies.

Also, when I attempt to ping the router from inside the VM, the packets aren't making it past the virtual bridge interface.  No ARP in response, they're just being dropped.

Last edited by hexadecagram (2011-12-31 06:35:56)

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#13 2012-01-07 05:53:50

senorsmile
Member
Registered: 2010-12-12
Posts: 67

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

teekay wrote:

I re-checked my kvm setup, and realized that tap0 isn't used at all (somehow it's not attached to the bridge automatically, believing "brctl show"). So I removed tuntap and only used a bridge as described in the wiki. It works with virt-manager here using br0. The VMs can access both, the host and the internet. My host dosn't run iptables.

So the info in my first post was invalid, sorry for that.

Do you have iptables active on your host? What driver do you use for network (virtio or others)?

Teekay, you seem to be the only person here that has successfully created a bridge to connect virtual machines to.  Would you please post your set up to assist in troubleshooting our problems?  I have been trying for months, and this is frustrating enough and preventing this machine from education (I use this primary machine to install virtual machines for learning, e.g. RHCE).

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#14 2012-01-07 08:20:27

hexadecagram
Member
Registered: 2011-05-20
Posts: 22

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

senorsmile wrote:

Teekay, you seem to be the only person here that has successfully created a bridge to connect virtual machines to.  Would you please post your set up to assist in troubleshooting our problems?  I have been trying for months, and this is frustrating enough and preventing this machine from education (I use this primary machine to install virtual machines for learning, e.g. RHCE).

I apologize.  I've managed to confuse things.

hexadecagram wrote:

I'm also using virt-manager with a default iptables configuration and also am failing to get bridging working over WiFi.

If I use the following configuration (I'm purposefully avoiding tun/tap in the interest of having the bridging device created and destroyed dynamically):

Source device: Host device wlan0 : macvtap
Device model: virtio
Source mode: VEPA. bridge, or private (passthrough fails to set the MAC, as one would expect)

The above virt-manager configuration does not work for WiFi connections (and I'm still trying to get the routed interface configuration that I described in my last post working).

hexadecagram wrote:

Source device: Host device eth0 : macvtap (note the difference)
Device model: virtio
Source mode: VEPA. bridge, or private (all three work, but passthrough fails to set the MAC, as one would expect; read this to understand the difference)

The above does create a working bridge for wired connections (screenshot).  It's just that instead of using /etc/network.d/bridge, the bridge is managed by virt-manager.

Hope this clears things up.

Last edited by hexadecagram (2012-01-08 03:49:31)

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#15 2012-01-07 10:05:47

teekay
Member
Registered: 2011-10-26
Posts: 269

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

senorsmile, try hexadecagram's solution. Dynamically creating the bridge as required sounds nice.

My netcfg setup for a static bridge is:
/etc/network.d/bridge

INTERFACE="br0"
CONNECTION="bridge"
DESCRIPTION="Example Bridge connection"
BRIDGE_INTERFACES="eth0"
IP="static"
ADDR="192.168.1.2"
GATEWAY="192.168.1.1"
DNS=('212.18.0.5' '212.18.3.5')
IP6=stateless

and in /etc/rc.conf

MODULES=(... bridge ...)
NETWORKS=(bridge)

That's it.

The only difference I see to your config, is that I left out the PRE_UP line. eth0 is set to promisc mode automatically it seems.

br0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500  metric 1
        inet 192.168.1.2  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.1.255
...
eth0: flags=4419<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,PROMISC,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500  metric 1
...

from dmesg after "netcfg -u bridge"

[ 2920.863473] r8169 0000:02:00.0: eth0: link down
[ 2920.863481] device eth0 entered promiscuous mode
[ 2920.863496] r8169 0000:02:00.0: eth0: link down
[ 2920.864241] ADDRCONF(NETDEV_UP): eth0: link is not ready
[ 2920.877224] ADDRCONF(NETDEV_UP): br0: link is not ready
[ 2923.136143] r8169 0000:02:00.0: eth0: link up
[ 2923.138633] ADDRCONF(NETDEV_CHANGE): eth0: link becomes ready
[ 2923.139487] br0: port 1(eth0) entering forwarding state
[ 2923.139507] br0: port 1(eth0) entering forwarding state
[ 2923.142148] ADDRCONF(NETDEV_CHANGE): br0: link becomes ready

Last edited by teekay (2012-01-07 10:16:10)

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#16 2012-01-09 01:21:26

senorsmile
Member
Registered: 2010-12-12
Posts: 67

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

hexadecagram wrote:
senorsmile wrote:

Teekay, you seem to be the only person here that has successfully created a bridge to connect virtual machines to.  Would you please post your set up to assist in troubleshooting our problems?  I have been trying for months, and this is frustrating enough and preventing this machine from education (I use this primary machine to install virtual machines for learning, e.g. RHCE).

I apologize.  I've managed to confuse things.

hexadecagram wrote:

I'm also using virt-manager with a default iptables configuration and also am failing to get bridging working over WiFi.

If I use the following configuration (I'm purposefully avoiding tun/tap in the interest of having the bridging device created and destroyed dynamically):

Source device: Host device wlan0 : macvtap
Device model: virtio
Source mode: VEPA. bridge, or private (passthrough fails to set the MAC, as one would expect)

The above virt-manager configuration does not work for WiFi connections (and I'm still trying to get the routed interface configuration that I described in my last post working).

hexadecagram wrote:

Source device: Host device eth0 : macvtap (note the difference)
Device model: virtio
Source mode: VEPA. bridge, or private (all three work, but passthrough fails to set the MAC, as one would expect; read this to understand the difference)

The above does create a working bridge for wired connections (screenshot).  It's just that instead of using /etc/network.d/bridge, the bridge is managed by virt-manager.

Hope this clears things up.

It is interesting that this works for you, as I have tried that configuration with no bridge configured; i.e. just a regular eth0 setup through netcfg.  Are you using netcfg at all or just the default network stuff in arch? 


@Teekay: I noticed that you loaded the module (bridge).  I had NOT loaded that as of yet.  I put that into my /etc/rc.conf file and rebooted, hoping that was my issue all along.  However, it functions exactly the same; i.e. dhcp doesn't work in the guest vm (ubuntu 10.04 64 bit desktop) and when I set the connection manually, I can ping the host but that's it.  No connectivity to the router, the internet or any other machine on my network.  Are you running 64 bit arch?

I suspect something is very wrong in my machine as every other setting looks fine, and neither Teekay's set up nor hexadecagram's suggested way of letting virt-manager manage the bridge work. 


I have access to another Intel based machine with VT extensions (core i7 laptop).  I am going to wipe it, install arch on it with libvirt and virt-manager and see what I can manage to get done with it.

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#17 2012-01-09 11:01:54

teekay
Member
Registered: 2011-10-26
Posts: 269

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

Please check following:

a) When the guset ist running, does its interface get attached to the bridge? It should show up in

brctl showmacs br0

b) In the guest, verify that the interface and mac is correct (also check /etc/udev/rules.d/70-persistent-net.rules)
If you use network-manager in the guest, try a static config instead.


Somehow I think the issue is more with the network setup in the guest.

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#18 2012-01-10 05:21:08

senorsmile
Member
Registered: 2010-12-12
Posts: 67

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

I restarted with the bridge again and ran

brctl showmacs br0

I get:

  1	00:24:8c:79:65:d1	yes		   0.00
  2	52:54:00:67:d0:e8	no		   9.99
  1	a8:39:44:5b:2f:8c	no		   3.18
  2	fe:54:00:67:d0:e8	yes		   0.00

The 52:54:00:67:d0:e8 is the mac address of a windows xp pro sp2 vm that I'm running. I notice there's another line, the second line, that almost has the same mac address except that the first octet is 52. 

I have tried running multiple different VM's, even a couple from backups that are running at my office on Debian 5 based Proxmox install that has a flawless bridge connection running (Windows Server 2008 and Ubuntu 10.04 server VM's).  None of them get either a dhcp nor allow connectivity with a static IP address assigned.  That is to say that I can ONLY reach my host at 192.168.0.5 in every single VM I try when the guest is set up statically.

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#19 2012-06-28 04:24:04

senorsmile
Member
Registered: 2010-12-12
Posts: 67

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

I solved this a while ago, but I just now realized that I either never finished writing my "it's solved" response, or I did and it simply never got posted.

I traced the source of the problem to an ASUS portable wifi router, which was being used as a wireless bridge; i.e. as a wireless client to get the best signal in that part of the house, but not have to run cables.  I found that with an ethernet cable plugged directly in, everything functioned as I would have expected.  Something in that wireless bridge is not getting passed on.

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#20 2012-09-30 10:34:21

MisterAnderson
Member
Registered: 2011-09-04
Posts: 284

Re: netcfg: Configuring a bridge for use with virtual machines (VMs)

senorsmile wrote:

I solved this a while ago, but I just now realized that I either never finished writing my "it's solved" response, or I did and it simply never got posted.

I traced the source of the problem to an ASUS portable wifi router, which was being used as a wireless bridge; i.e. as a wireless client to get the best signal in that part of the house, but not have to run cables.  I found that with an ethernet cable plugged directly in, everything functioned as I would have expected.  Something in that wireless bridge is not getting passed on.

I think that wireless bridges (like the type they sell for game consoles and internet TV's and the like) take a single IP address from their access point and pass it to the device they are plugged into, so if you are trying to request a second IP address behind it (from the VM) it won't work.


D:

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